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CICLY · Lethal Yellowing Disease of Coconut Palm

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Re: C I C L Y Susceptibility and resistance of palms to LY   Message List  
Reply | Forward | Delete Message #2159 of 2180 |
Greetings all,

In my message to CICLY (sent yesterday) about our 1970s report on LY
susceptibility of palms in Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, I mentioned a
publication based on this list. I was using a 'reference manager' program
when I wrote that message to you, and should have clicked on something that
would cause the entire citation to be written out.

The full citation of this publication is as follows:

Howard, F. W., D. L. Thomas, H. M. Donselman, and M. E. Collins. 1979.
Susceptibilities of palm species to mycoplasmalike organism-associated
diseases in Florida. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 27: 109-117.



Regards,



Bill H.



F. W. Howard, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Entomology
University of Florida, IFAS
Fort Lauderdale Research & Education Center
3205 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314

e-mail: FWHOWARD@UFL.EDU





----- Original Message -----
From: "Forrest W. Howard" <fwhoward@ufl.edu>
To: <CICLY@yahoogroups.com>
Sent: Monday, August 20, 2007 2:24 PM
Subject: C I C L Y Susceptibility and resistance of palms to LY


> Greetings LY researchers and other colleagues,
>
>
>
> During the LY epidemic in Florida, the University of Florida and the
> Division of Plant Industry (DPI) of the Florida Department of Agriculture
> and Consumer Services worked together in maintaining a list of palm
> species
> that were susceptible to LY. Basically the way this worked was that DPI
> inspectors, who perform nursery inspections and also inspections and
> surveys
> in the general urban landscape, would perform field diagnoses of LY in
> hosts
> that had not been reported previously. Then Darryl Thomas, a plant
> pathologist with the University of Florida, would confirm these diagnoses
> by
> EM examination of bud tissue from the field-diagnosed palms for presence
> of
> phytoplamas. This effort has continued to this day, with Nigel Harrison
> confirming diagnoses by molecular analysis.
>
>
>
> A few to several palm species would be added each year to the list. The
> list
> of susceptible palms now stands at 38 (the last time I heard, which was
> fairly recently).
>
>
>
> Knowing the species that contract LY is one thing. It is also helpful to
> know the relative susceptibility of different species. Those of us who
> were
> conducting research on LY during the mentioned Florida epidemic learned by
> observations on many affected sites that the incidence of LY was
> consistently higher on certain species than others, and some species never
> contracted the disease. For example, Pritchardia species frequently
> contracted LY, and thus we considered them to be highly susceptible. In
> contrast, none of us ever saw a case of LY in cabbage palmettos (Sabal
> palmetto), so we rated that species as probably not susceptible to LY
>
>
>
> In addition to this data on apparent degree of susceptibility of different
> species collected by roaming around and looking at what was going on in
> the
> general landscape, data from a well-designed disease trial garden would be
> very interesting. Of course, it takes time for a trial garden to grow and
> be
> useful in testing susceptibility to a given disease, so it would have been
> necessary for a trial garden to have been planted on the Florida mainland
> years prior to, but in anticipation of, the invasion of the mainland by
> LY.
> It is unlikely that anyone would have thought of this, especially since
> prior to the LY epidemic in Florida it was not known that this disease
> attacked palms additional to coconut.
>
>
>
> But the next best thing to a trial garden was Fairchild Tropical Botanic
> Garden (the term 'Botanic' has been added recently to the name). It was a
> sad thing that LY invaded that beautiful and scientifically useful living
> collection of palms and other tropical plants, but it was also an
> opportunity to find out a little more about the susceptibility of
> different
> palm species.
>
>
>
> We therefore worked with Marry Collins, a horticulturist at FTBG, in
> compiling data on the apparent susceptibility of different palms in the
> garden.
>
>
>
> The data have their limitations, because for one thing FTBG had not been
> designed to test palms against a disease. It was designed to display
> palms,
> sometimes of different ages, in different settings. Rainforest palms were
> in
> a different area than palms native to savannas, etc. A well-designed trial
> garden would have each species represented by palms of the same age, all
> species replicated with equal numbers of palms, etc. In spite of these
> limitations, we found that the relative susceptibility indicated by these
> observations did match pretty well with what we saw in southern Florida in
> general during the LY epidemic.
>
>
>
> We summarized these observation in an article published in the FAO Plant
> Protection Bulletin {Howard, 1978 #280}. The complete list of species,
> which
> shows the total number all of the palm species at that time in FTBG, and
> the
> number of each species that contracted LY (the number was 0 in all but a
> small percentage of species) was too long to publish in a bulletin like
> this, so we published it as a Fort Lauderdale Agricultural Research Center
> Report, and mailed copies to interested persons.
>
>
>
> The report is probably still of some potential use for LY researchers, so
> recently I looked into how we could distribute it to interested parties.
> As
> a result, the report is now on our website.
>
>
>
> You can see (and print) the report using the following steps:
>
>
>
> Go to the following Internet site:
>
>
>
> http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/
>
>
>
> This is the website of the Fort Lauderdale Research & Education Center
>
>
>
> On the left hand side, you will see a list of topics. One is Palm
> Production
> and Maintenance.
>
>
>
> Under that title is a subtitle: Palm diseases. Click on it.
>
>
>
> You will now see a listing of articles on palm diseases.
>
>
>
> The report is listed there with the title PALM SPECIES SUSCEPTIBLE AND
> RESSISTANT TO MLO-ASSOCIATED LETHAL DECLINES.
>
>
>
> (Note: MLO-Associated lethal declines is the name we used to give to what
> we
> thought was LY, but in palms other than coconut. Nowadays, we say
> phytoplasma instead of mycoplasmalike organisms, and we consider the
> so-called declines in the non-coconut palms to be the same thing as LY.)
>
>
>
> Best wishes,
>
>
>
> F. W. Howard, Ph.D.
> Associate Professor of Entomology
> University of Florida, IFAS
> Fort Lauderdale Research & Education Center
> 3205 College Avenue
> Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314
>
> e-mail: FWHOWARD@UFL.EDU
>
>
>
>
> Centre for Information on Coconut Lethal Yellowing
> http://www.cicy.mx/dir_acad/cicly/main.html
>
> Read previous messages at http://www.yahoogroups.com/messages/CICLY
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>
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>
>
>
>
>




Tue Aug 21, 2007 6:22 pm

"Forrest W. Howard" <fwhoward@ufl.edu>
fwhoward@ufl.edu
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Greetings all, In my message to CICLY (sent yesterday) about our 1970s report on LY susceptibility of palms in Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, I mentioned...
Forrest W. Howard
fwhoward@ufl.edu
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Aug 21, 2007
6:40 pm

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